Reis, Jacob Robert. Oath Formulas in the Poetic Edda. Master of Arts thesis for The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Germanic Studies. May 2017.
URL: https://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/62667 (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Spurr, John. A Profane History of Early Modern Oaths. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 11 (2001): 37–63. Published online by Cambridge University Press.
URL: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0080440101000032 (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Tolkien, J. R. R. The Children of Húrin. Edited by Christopher Tolkien. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Apple Books edition. (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Tolkien, J. R. R. The Hobbit: or There and Back Again. HarperCollins E-Books. ISBN 978-0-00-732260. Apple Books edition. (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Tolkien, J. R. R. The Lord of the Rings. HarperCollins e-books. Apple Books edition. (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Tolkien, J. R. R. The Silmarillion. Edited by Christopher Tolkien. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Apple Books edition. (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Tolkien, J. R. R. Unfinished Tales of Numenor and Middle-earth. Edited by Christopher Tolkien. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Apple Books edition. (Accessed July 23, 2022)
Editing and production by James Pierson
<a href="https://discord.gg/B2ZWfKz">Join Athrabeth's Discord!</a></p><h3>Sources</h3><p>- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), Morgoth's Ring
- J.R.R. Tolkien, Christopher Tolkien (ed.), The Silmarillion
Kane, Douglas C. (2008) “Reconstructing Arda: Of Fëanor and the Unchaining of Melkor,” Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature: Vol. 27 : No. 1, Article 4.
Available at: https://dc.swosu.edu/mythlore/vol27/iss1/4
- Walls-Thumma, Dawn M. (2016) “Attainable Vistas: Historical Bias in Tolkien’s Legendarium as a Motive for Transformative Fanworks,” Journal of Tolkien Research: Vol. 3 : Iss. 3 , Article 3.
Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/journaloftolkienresearch/vol3/iss3/3
- Retrieved from Dawn’s blog post titled: “The Deaths of Kings: Historical Bias in the Death Scenes of Fëanor and Fingolfin” found at: http://dawnfelagund.com/node/8
A note about elven names
Elves have a lot of names A LOT OF NAMES. Often these names are significant and/or portentous. They can have three kinds of “Anessi”, given names.
The first is the fathername (we dont have an actual word for fathername in quenya), given at birth.
The second, amilessë, is the “mother name” and is given later in life. Mothers were thought to have insight, often prophetic, into their childrens character, so mothernames had a great deal of significance.
Epessë, “afternames”, were names or titles of honor either granted to the elf or self chosen.
There is a fourth kind of name, the Kilmessë, which is chosen by an elf once they are “capable of lámatyáve” which is to say “fluent enough to take joy in individual sounds and words”. This name was a private name, though not secret, and using it without permission was considered presumptuous or an insult.
Fun Fact about Valar Names
While Melkor’s names, as you will see below, are traditionally quenya and sindarin, he is actually the exception to the rule. The other Valar’s names, while often having both quenya and sindarin forms, are based on their names in YET ANOTHER language Tolkien invented, called Valarin. This language is BONKERS WEIRD. It barely counts as a “language” as Tolkien only really sketched out some words and a bit of structure but its cool to see.
Fëanor: sindarin rendering of his amilessë, Fëanáro, meaning “spirit of fire”.
Curufinwë: quenya, his fathername, meaning “skillful son of Finwë”
Melkor – quenya, lit. “mighty rising”, translated in the Silmarillion as “he who arises in Might”
Morgoth – sindarin for “dark foe”
While the translation of Sauron as a quenya word meaning “The Abhored” is pretty consistent, the origin for this word went through a number of iterations over time. the elfdict entry for the word has a great rundown.
sindarin for “the People of the Jewel-smiths”